“DIOS SALVE A IRLANDA!” GRITARON LOS HÉROES

Traducción del ingles del https://rebelbreeze.wordpress.com/2019/11/23/god-save-ireland-cried-the-heroes/

Diarmuid Breatnach

(Tiempo de lectura: 5 minutos de texto)

El 23 de noviembre es el aniversario de la ejecución de los Mártires de Manchester por parte del Estado inglés en 1867, frente a la cárcel Belle Vue, Salford1, Manchester. Los “tres de corazón noble”2 eran Phillip Allen, William Larkin y Michael O’Brien. La página de Wikipedia sobre los Mártires de Manchester dice que fueron ahorcados por el asesinato del agente policial Brett, pero esto es completamente incorrecto. Aunque fue de hecho el veredicto, no ocurrió ningún asesinato y, dudoso si incluso un veredicto de homicidio hubiera sido correcto.

Representación artística del ahorcamiento público de los mártires de Manchester. (Fuente de la imagen: Internet)

El 18 de diciembre de ese año, el coronel Thomas J. Kelly y el capitán Deasy, oficiales de la Hermandad Feniano3 y veteranos del Ejército de la Unión de la Guerra Civil estadounidense4, que habían sido arrestados en Inglaterra, estaban siendo transportados en una furgoneta de prisión con caballos de la prisión del tribunal hacia la cárcel de Belle Vue. Manchester era una ciudad industrial con una gran población de clase trabajadora, de los cuales al menos el 10% era de origen irlandés. Un gran grupo de fenianos tendió una emboscada a la camioneta de la prisión en un lugar desde entonces llamado localmente “Arco Feniano”, mientras una línea de ferrocarril pasaba por encima. El grupo de rescate irlandés expulsó a la escolta policial montada por 12 hombres, pero no logró abrir la puerta de la furgoneta con hachas y palancas y uno de ellos disparó con una pistola a la cerradura.

Fue desafortunado que justo en ese momento, el agente Charles Brett estaba mirando por el ojo de la cerradura: la bala entró en su cerebro a través de su ojo y le mató. La cerradura no estaba rota y las llaves aún estaban adentro con el policía muerto, pero una prisionera las recuperó de su cuerpo y las pasó a la partida de rescate a través de una rejilla.

Artists’ impression of the rescue of the Fenian prisoners.
(Image source: Internet)

Kelly y Deasy se alejaron. Se ofreció una recompensa de £ 300 (£ 24,000 a partir de 2015, según Wikipedia, es decir al rededor de € 30,340 en el 2019) por información que conduzca a su recuperación, pero nunca se pagó. Friedrich Engels, revolucionario comunista vivía en Manchester en ese momento con su esposa patriota irlandesa, Mary Burns, y algunos dicen que estuvieron involucrados en ocultar a los fugitivos (Marx y Engels habían acogido a miembros de la Hermandad Feniana en la Primera Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores). Kelly y Deasy nunca fueron recapturados, y finalmente regresaron a los Estados Unidos.

Una placa patrimonial marca el lugar.
(Fot fuente: Internet)

UNA ONDA DE HISTERIA ANTI-IRLANDESA

Pero una gran ola de represión del Estado británico descendió sobre las áreas de la clase trabajadora de Manchester, en particular sobre “Little Ireland” (“Pequeña Irlanda”) y decenas de personas fueron arrestadas. Los medios de comunicación británicos llamaron a los eventos los “ultrajes de Manchester”.

Veintiséis fueron enviados a juicio en una ola de histeria anti-irlandesa y finalmente cinco fueron sentenciados por asesinato y condenados a la horca. Como se señaló anteriormente, sin ninguna intención de matar al oficial, no debería haber habido ni siquiera un cargo de asesinato, sin importar una condena. A Thomas O’Meagher Condon y Thomas Maguire se les revocaron las condenas; el primero a través de las oficinas de los EEUU (de los cuales era ciudadano) y el segundo era un soldado de infantería de la marina real y tenía una coartada de hierro fundido, como dicen y los testigos en su contra fueron expuestos en mentiras. Nunca se presentó evidencia convincente contra los tres restantes, Allen, Larkin y O’Brien y de ellos, solo uno probablemente había estado presente en el rescate. Pero los colgaron de todos modos.

Impresión artística del juicio de los cinco condenados, incluidos los tres mártires de Manchester.
(Fuente de la imagen: Internet)

Cuando el juez emitió sus sentencias, gritaron “¡Dios salve a Irlanda!” y fue eso lo que inspiró a TD Sullivan, un político nacionalista constitucional irlandés, a escribir la letra de la balada, conocida y cantada hasta el día de hoy (miren lo de bajo, cantado por Los Dubliners). TD Sullivan comentó que dentro de un mes de las ejecuciones, la canción se podía escuchar en pubs de Inglaterra e Irlanda, ¡una hazaña notable por un tiempo sin radio, sin hablar de teléfonos móviles e Internet!

“Recordemos de ellos.” (Fuente de la imagen: Internet)

Las conmemoraciones de los Mártires de Manchester se convirtieron en parte de los eventos en los calendarios republicanos y nacionalistas irlandeses y formaron parte de la tradición y la historia que ayudaron a formar los revolucionarios irlandeses Impresión artística del juicio de los cinco condenados, incluidos los tres mártires de Manchester.
(Fuente de la imagen: Internet)posteriores. La comunidad irlandesa en Manchester les encargó un monumento conmemorativo en el cementerio Mostyn, Manchester, que fue desfigurado varias veces por los fascistas y allí se celebró una marcha conmemorativa anual durante años (a veces demasiado chocando con los fascistas británicos). También hay un gran monumento para ellos en el cementerio Glasnevin de Dublín y hay monumentos a ellos también en otros cinco condados en Irlanda y además dos distintos en dos de ellos.

Fin.

El monumento erigido en el cementerio de Moston, Manchester, por la comunidad irlandesa. (Fuente de la foto: Internet)
La placa en el Monumento a los Mártires de Manchester en Glasnevin, obra de esa maravillosa organización voluntaria, “the National Graves Association” (la Asociación de Tumbas Nacionales). (Foto: Wikipedia)

NOTAS AL PIE

1Salford ha recibido una serie de referencias literarias no complementarias, una en La Condición de la Clase Trabajadora en Inglaterra por Frederik Engels (1845) y otra en la canción de Ewan McColl, Dirty Old Town (1949).

2Parte de la letra de la canción Irlandesa (pero en inglés) sobre sus ejecuciones.

3Organización republicana, independentista y revolucionaria, fundada en Irlanda y en los EEUU el 17 Marzo 1858.

4Los fenianos en los Estados Unidos alentaron la inscripción de sus miembros en las fuerzas armadas para ganar experiencia militar. La mayoría de los irlandeses se unieron a las fuerzas militares de la Unión, pero algunos, particularmente de la anterior migración de los Ulster-escoceses, se unieron al Ejército Confederado.

SPANISH CIVIL WAR AIR RAID SHELTER, HIDDEN SINCE 1938, DISCOVERED IN MADRID

 

RECENTLY DISCOVERED DURING DEMOLITION WORK, THE UNDERGROUND COMPLEX HAD NOT BEEN SEEN BY HUMAN EYES SINCE 1938

(Translation to English by D.Breatnach from article by Daniel Ramirez in El Espanol on line on 14 May this year — link given at end of translation.  Photos reproduced and article translation published by kind permission of El Espanol)

A hole in the ground, in the entrails of the city. Dry earth covered with mud. It had rained. The American girls and those dressed up run in search of a taxi when the Raimundo Fernández Villaverde street dies, just as they rise in the Nuevos Ministerios area. Noise from horns, ambulances, shouts. And in the middle of it all, the big hole.

It is surrounded by cranes and scrap metal. Also building workers and architects in yellow vests. In the centre, five or six metres deep, a door of cement and brick. It may not be interfered with. In the guts of the Artillery Workshop, recently demolished, the financial heart of Madrid has just discovered an air raid shelter, built in 1938. That’s the reason for the dug earth, the mud, the emptiness.

The Condor Legion was a Luftwaffe air force unit supporting Franco)
(Image source: Internet)

The demolition of this neomudéjar-style building to make room for a block of housing split the Madrid City Council of which Carmena is Mayor. Those who wanted to keep it lined up against the rest, but few knew what was hidden by the floor of the now defunct first concrete construction of the city, built in 1899 by the Ministry of War. It belonged to the state – in military use for decades – until 2014, when it was sold to a real estate cooperative for 111 million euros.

“It’s the first visit after its discovery”

Steps descending from entrance.
(Photo Jorge Barreno, El Espanol newspaper)

Just beyond the open door, stairs. The cement benches that allayed the fear of death appear six metres down. Virgin earth for camera and notebook. “This is the first visit after its discovery,” says Isabel Baquedano, archaeologist of the General Directorate of Heritage of the Community of Madrid, which froze the work permit until the survival of the shelter had been ensured.

One last look at daylight. Baquedano brings to life the race to the basement. The hole in the earth was then an inner courtyard in the Artillery Workshop. On the floor, a door. Then another, like the one that we are now going through.

Photo showing entrance to air-raid shelter in a demolition/ building site (Photo Jorge Barreno, El Espanol newspaper)

HEMINGWAY AND THE AERIAL BOMBING

Hemingway said that, at the beginning of the war, the citizen would quickly see the enemy plane and the sirens would soon be screaming. Then they flew much higher and the deaths multiplied. A bomb was “that growing whistle, like a subway train that crashes against the cornice and bathes the room in plaster and broken glass.” The American, with lively irony, used to joke: “While you hear the glass tinkle as you fall you realize that, at last, you are back in Madrid.”

The stairs and walls are brick. “Like those of almost all shelters,” explains Baquedano. The archaeologist who acts as a guide for this visit outlines a universal, institutionalised architecture, fruit of necessity, constructed in a race against time. “The International Red Cross came to draw up a map of the air raid shelters in Madrid,” says Javier Rubio, a historian whose brother was hiding in Madrid at the time.

The shelter, when built, had an electricity supply.
(Photo Jorge Barreno, El Espanol newspaper)

Small steps for the flashlight to illuminate. In 1938, a filthy, rusty cabling gave light to the whole refuge. There were also subterranean armchairs and red velvet, but this is not the case now.

The chroniclers wrote that seeing a drunk and desperate man who pushed and jumped over elderly people and children was not unusual. Here is a quick but military descent. It is believed that this basement only sheltered the military of the Artillery Workshop, when a few meters away, in the Glorieta de Cuatro Caminos, a hospital had a similar space.

One of the galleries
(Photo Jorge Barreno, El Espanol newspaper)

The lightbulbs, intact, but empty. The shelter is a labyrinth of intersecting galleries. The photographer and Javier, one of the construction workers, leads the route with lanterns. The cement benches show some marks, made by the archaeological study commissioned by the Community, which confirmed the finding. They are almost at ground level. “Capacity is estimated for between 80 and 100 people,” says Baquedano.

WHAT DID NOGAL KEYS SAY?

In 1938, Madrid was the epic of a lost war. General Miaja, a Republican hero, defended the trenches exposed to gunfire. Gun in hand, he shouted for men who knew how to die. Strips of paper were stuck to shop windows to prevent the bombing’s vibration from shattering them.

“Everybody went scared to his hole. Life had fled streets and squares; not a light, nor a noise in the ghostly environment of the big city,” said journalist Manuel Chaves Nogales. “This little bourgeois liberal”so he described himself – who predicted the birth of a dictatorship regardless of the colour of victory, saw in the bombings a sort of lottery in which Madridians participated unconcerned: “Insensate and heroic, Madrid learned to live with joyful resignation. “

Little is left of that daily fear in these difficult tunnels, sometimes too narrow, fresh, guardians of absolute silence, still oblivious of the shopping centres that have grown up around them.

Intersection of galleries in the underground complex (Photo Barreno)

SÁNCHEZ MAZAS AND TALES TO FORGET

Some spoke, others were silent. Close or open your eyes? Different ways of coping. The fearful Rafael Sánchez Mazas, in the words of those who dealt with him then, wrote a novel to the rhythm of the bombs. For evasion and for other reasons. Chapter by chapter, he read it to his Falange colleagues at the Chilean embassy, where Carlos Morla Lynch, the diplomat in charge, provided refuge for them.

In the famous photo, Sánchez Mazas in the middle, several refugees listen to that unfinished novel of the title Rosa Kruger. Here the benches, in a row, do not invite conversation. Only recollection, although it may be the lack of habit.

In line with what Chaves said, Agustín de Foxa, in his “De Corte a Checa”, reflected: “At five o’clock in the morning, the local people commented on the bombardment by eating churros and drinking glasses of anise.”

“To leave a trail, not to disappear at all”

At the doors of the shelter, or perhaps inside, in these benches unequivocal proof of the finding, the tears of farewells ran. “Like those insects that perform the nuptial flight before they die, the men who were being sent to the Sierra or those who awaited in agitation their execution were longing for female presence and love so as to leave a trail, so as not to disappear altogether.”

Old cabling from 1938 (Photo Jorge Barreno, El Espanol newspaper)

“Little is known of this shelter,” Baquedano continues on this path of short steps. Archaeologists found no traces beyond the benches. The soldiers who arrived after the war used the subway as a shooting gallery. That is the reason for the gouges that bullets have left in the brickwork.

THE NOISE OF THE BOMBS

Suddenly a noise. Loud, deafening. The conversation ends abruptly. The cameraman and the journalist look at Javier, who laughs. “Calm down, the cranes are moving the scrap and it will have fallen up above.” It is a noise to make one cower and which makes the legs tremble.

A cosmopolitan and naive noise, which has nothing to do with the thunder of the shell that haunted Arturo Barea. In his “Forging of a Rebel” he confessed to having nightmares about the impact. He imagined the mutilation of bodies, their rotting, the limbs torn off the sidewalk … When the sirens began to sound and the danger became true, Barea reported feeling “a deep relief”, a result of the return to reality, the only way out then from that spiral of madness.

“My mouth was filled with vomit”

“We would go down to the basement, sit there with other guests, all in pajamas or gowns, while the antiaircraft barked and the explosions shook the building, sometimes my mouth filled with vomit, but it was a comfort because everything was real, I was deeply asleep,” he wrote.

On leaving, the light, and a city that beats, has nothing to do with that Madrid that, in Foxa’s words, turned off the lanterns for fear of bombing, while the last trams passed on their routes with their tragic, blue-green painted lights.

At the fence, several curious people approach the hole. Office workers, clerks, consultants, lawyers … In 1938, Barea said, there were neighbors of distant neighborhoods who came to see up close what a bombing was. “They left happy and proud with pieces of shrapnel, still hot, as a souvenir.”

Additional notes from translator, D. Breatnach:

There were a few words and phrases with which I had difficulty since the apparent translation from dictionaries did not seem to make sense in the article and I converted them into what seemed to be the sense in the text and context.

The future of the archaelogical site by law requires protection from the owners of the site in which it is located.  It may or may not be open to limited or full public access.

In the original article there was a lovely version of the Viva la Quinta Brigada song, about the 5th Brigade of the Republican forces (not Christy Moore’s wonderful song which, despite the original title is about the 15th International Brigade).  I tried to embed it here but failed but you may find it on the original article link below.

LINKS

Original article: http://www.elespanol.com/espana/20170513/215728433_0.html